Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City
Tel. Nos. (+63 2) 632-444
ext. 70214, 70660, 70847
Members of the Energy for All Partnership have produced many publications and case studies on the topic of energy access. The partnership itself has supported a number of studies on best practices. You can find links to these resources here.
This brochure reviews the key features of ADB’s Bhutan Green Power Development Project, which taps into Bhutan’s enormous hydropower potential through a public–private partnership, the first of its kind in the country. The project marks a new phase for development in Bhutan, and illustrates how cross-border power trade is a win–win solution for all countries involved.
Under the Energy for All Initiative, the ADB has launched an in-depth study of select villages in two focus areas of Myanmar, Mandalay region and Chin State, to contribute to the Government of Myanmar’s plans to expand energy access nationally.
The study entitled, ‘Scoping Off-Grid Renewable Energy Opportunities in Myanmar,’ investigates the energy poverty situation in Myanmar by using conditions from the villages observed to serve as illustrative case studies of current household practices and needs. Results from the analysis will be used to implement renewable energy-based pilot installations in Mandalay Region and Chin state.
This paper explores energy access, energy poverty, and energy development as energy security concerns confronting Asia and the Pacific. Improved access to energy services is arguably the key defining characteristic of economic development. Lack of access and energy poverty contribute to hunger with women and children spending long hours gathering fuels rather than earning incomes. The health consequences are dire with indoor air pollution associated with traditional energy use responsible for more deaths each year than those from malaria and tuberculosis.
Environmentally, energy poverty forces its victims to harvest more polluting and less energy-dense fuels such as woody biomass or charcoal often causing land degradation, deforestation, and the contamination of soil and water resources. Such depletion instigates conflicts over land, decreases food supply, diminishes sources of traditional medicine, and accelerates malnutrition, all of which involve various dimensions of energy security.
One Goal, Two Paths
Despite the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region’s impressive economic growth, over 1 billion of its people still lack access to electricity and modern cooking solutions. To achieve universal access to modern energy by 2030, this World Bank publicatiopn exhorts EAP countries to advance simultaneously on two paths: (1) accelerate programs for grid and off-grid electricity through appropriate policies and innovative technologies; and (2) scale up access to clean cooking fuels and efficient cooking stoves, particularly for biomass in poor rural areas.
SNV is optimising an online publication library on the SNV website containing hundreds of domestic biogas publications. Click here to access these resources.
Poor People’s Energy Outlook 2012
The PPEO 2012 explains concisely the complex issue of energy access. It is a useful tool to understand the challenges of and potential approaches towards Total Energy Access – both for people new to the field as well as for practitioners. It provides relevant facts and figures that are often unavailable or challenging to find” Barbara Boerner, Canopus Foundation, and Solar for All.
The Poor people’s energy outlook 2012: Energy for earning a living tries to understand, communicate, and ultimately contribute to changing the very real experiences of people living in energy poverty. It has been written to engage policymakers, governments, donor agencies, civil society and energy practitioners in the importance of energy access, but will be of interest to anyone wishing to gain a greater understanding of the energy needs of poor people around the world.
2012 Small Wind World Report
WWEA released the first Small Wind World Report. For the first time, data about the status of small wind turbines all over the world has been gathered and published. The report indicated that there are a total of 656,000 units of small wind turbines installed all over the world as of the end of 2010 representing a total capacity of und 440 MW (end of 2010), compared with a total capacity of 240 GW of large wind turbines. The largest share of the small wind turbines can be found in two countries, China (450’000 units/166 MW) and the USA (144’000 units/179 MW), followed by the medium sized markets with 2-22’000 installed units and 5-50 MW total capacity: UK, Canada, Germany, Spain, Poland, Japan and Italy. In 2020, WWEA expects that the total installed small wind capacity will reach 3’800 MW, representing an almost tenfold increase compared with 2010. The market for new small wind turbines will have a volume of around 750 MW in the year 2020.
Solar Lighting for the Base of the Pyramid- Overview of an Emerging Market -
The report provides a snapshot of the off-grid lighting market and provides industry-level data and analysis on key trends. It relies on the inputs of abroad range of industry experts, manufacturers, distributors, scientists, market researchers, and NGO leaders worldwide who contributed their views,time, and advice to the preparation of this document. This included interviews with over 70 solar market players in 10 African markets, and a range of lighting product manufacturers worldwide. The report will be updated every two years.
Energy Poverty – How to make energy access universal? (Special early excerpt of the World Energy Outlook 2010 for UN General Assembly on the Millenium Development Goals)
The report presents the results of joint work of the International EnergyAgency (IEA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United NationsIndustrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
The report estimates the number of people who need to gain access to modern energy services and the scale of the investments required, both in the period to 2015 and over the longer term, in order to achieve the proposed goal of universal access to modern energy services by 2030 (AGECC,2010). It also also discusses the implications of universal access to modern energy services for the global energy market and the environment and health. This report includes an Energy Development Index and a discussion of the path to improving access to modern energy services,as well as financing mechanisms and the implications for government policy in developing countries.
50 Ways to End Kerosene Lighting
This guide aims to show many different technologies that can be used to eliminate kerosenelighting from households in developing countries. 1.6 billion people in approximately 300million households still use kerosene lighting, spending around $10-30 billion/year, or anaverage of about $1/week. There are many technologies available to replace kerosene lighting and some simplemeasures can be taken to determine if they might be acceptable in the local context.
This guide does not seek to give a definitive answer, but just an indication of how an assessmentcan be made, and what are the options available. The publication was prepared by Barefoot Power and Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership in May 2009.
Assessing the Role of Microfinance in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change
This paper by Shardul Agrawala and Maëlis Carraro offers the first empirical assessment of the linkages between microfinance supported activities and adaptation to climate change. Specifically, the lending portfolios of the 22 leading microfinance institutions in two climate vulnerable countries – Bangladesh and Nepal – are analysed to assess the synergies and potential conflicts between microfinance and adaptation. The two countries had also been previously examined as part of an earlier OECD report on the links between macro-level Official Development Assistance and adaptation. This analysis provides a complementary “bottom-up” perspective on financing for adaptation.
The paper is an output from the OECD project on Economic Aspects of Adaptation and has been overseen by the Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP).
A Guide on Gender Mainstreaming in the AfricaBiogas Partnership Programme (ABPP)
The guide is based on experience on biogas worldwide, and more recently, on the experience anddocumentation that ENERGIA has produced, as part of its Gender in Energy Projects initiative, beingsupported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). It also incorporatesinputs and suggestions from representatives from the six ABPP countries in Africa, and representativesfrom the Indonesian and the Rwandan biogas programmes, who attended the workshop on GenderMainstreaming in the Africa Biogas Partnership Programme, held in Nairobi on 18-19 May 20102.
The guide has been developed by Soma Dutta, May Sengendo andIndira Shakya, with contributions from Sheila Oparaocha and Anja Panjwani.
This guide has been provided by Barefoot Power specifically for microfinance institutions (MFIs) to highlightthe significant market opportunities for energy loan products, with a focus on lighting. The guide is also intended to those who are involved in village energy to increase their understanding on micro-finance. The preparation of this guide becomes possible through the funding assistance of the Australian government, through the Renewable Energy and Energy EfficiencyPartnership (REEEP) South East Asia and Pacific Regional Secretariat. The Australian government through REEEP also supports Barefoot Power’s activities in the Pacific.
The stories in this publication—told throughvillagers and those helping them on the ground—portray resourceful ways ofgiving poor and remote communities access to clean and renewable energy.The case studies look at different types of energy projects—solar, micro hydroand biogas—as well as innovative approaches in implementing and financing projects.
This publication was prepared by ADB’s Energy for All Initiative. The initiative which was was launched in February 2008 has an overall objective of replicating and scaling up accessto energy projects targeting poor and remote communities where energypoverty remains endemic.
Household Energy Access for Cooking and Heating: Lessons Learned and the Way Forward
This study provides the review of two World Bank experts on the 19 household projects supported by the Bank. The study provides eight lessons, namely: (1) holistic approach to household fuels is needed: the fuel-wood supply has to be sustainable; improved stoves and alternative fuels are needed; and institutions must be able to create and implement regulatory incentives that work; (2) Public awareness campaigns are needed: households need to be informed of the risks they face by using inefficient stoves; (3) Local communities must be involved early on: this includes governments, NGOs and the private sector; (4) Consumer fuel subsidies don’t help poor people. Wealthier households benefit the most from subsidies, which cause fiscal deficits; (5) Both market-based and public support are needed to commercialize cookstoves. A cookstove market is the best long-term solution, but public support is needed at the early stage; (6) Cookstove users’ needs must come first: users who get what they want from cookstoves will adopt them; (7) Durability of cookstoves is important: durable stoves made of good quality materials will get used; and (8) Microfinance helps cookstove programs succeed.
Towards an ‘Energy Plus’ Approach for the Poor: A review of good practices and lessons learned from Asia and the Pacific
This report documents good practices and lessons learned in addressing energy poverty and expanding energy services for the poor. It draws form the experiences of 17 energy access programmes and projects in the Asia-Pacific region. The 17 reviewed energy access programmes and projects have brought improvements to the quality of lives of communities in terms of energy cost savings, health, education, communication, access to information and women’s empowerment, thus contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. In addition, initiatives that promote low emission technologies to contribute to the global climate change agenda. This report highlights that breaking through energy poverty cycle is best achieved by combining the delivery of energy services with measures that generate cash income.
Despite years of sustained economic growth and enormous technological progress, energy poverty in the Asia and Pacific region remains at unacceptably high levels. Addressing energy poverty is an ADB priority. This publication highlights recent and ongoing projects which contribute towards that goal, through focused efforts and innovative solutions aim to bring the benefits of access to modern energy to all.
ADB’s support for increased access to energy is guaranteed. In the future, ADB is looking to broaden the support it gives, not only financially, but also by identifying innovative solutions, sharing knowledge with partner development institutions, national governments and with the private sector as well.
The next phase of the fight against energy poverty will tap into the power of the private sector, ADB aims to help entrepreneurs craft business models that are affordable and appropriate for a market of billions looking for reliable, affordable energy. In light of the increased global focus on energy poverty, ADB will maintain its leadership role in Asia and the Pacific region, and channel this new support into real gains on the ground.
The report contends that there exists a number of key and critically interrelated structural barriers to the large scale deployment of mini-grids at both the Program level (associated with achieving standardized and streamlined procurement, system establishment and governance process, and optimising overall project development to facilitate ready access to suitable finance); and Village/System level (associated with achieving appropriate consumer consultation, hardware selection and integration, and developing effective O&M structures). The sustainability of systems depends on finding responses to all of these barriers, and ensuring they are focused at the appropriate level of scale.
The Energy for All partnership was formed to serve as a platform for sharing of knowledge, building capacity and promoting the exchange of ideas and information on energy access. The partnership is composed of organizations coming from the government, civil society and private sector that are genuinely interested providing access to energy for the poor.
In the span of their involvement on this initiative, these organizations have already developed a number of models which contain innovative ideas. These models illustrate various financing mechanisms, institutional arrangements, stakeholders’ coordination, and technical innovation which show the immense opportunities in meeting the challenge of providing energy access.
The Energy for All partnership secretariat has thought of compiling these projects into case studies to demonstrate the possibilities and opportunities of developing energy access projects. To highlight the best practices, each case study provides detailed discussion on the background or rationale of the project and the approach used that makes it unique compared to other efforts.
The case studies presented here serve to provide useful insights and lessons which can assist in the design and implementation of genuine activities. May these case studies motivate a number of organizations to support the cause of the partnership of uplifting the lives of the millions of people who are still living in energy poverty.